An electric car or vehicle is also known as electrics.These vehicles use one or more electric or traction motors to drive their wheels. The electric vehicle may power through a collector system using electricity generating from off-vehicle sources. And, the collector system may use self-contained electricity, supply by the batteries, fuel cells, solar panels, or an electric generator. The electrics may be a rail and road vehicles (such as an electric car or train), surface and underwater vehicle, electric spacecraft or electric aircraft.
Applications of Electric vehicle technology
There is a wide variety available in the applications of electric vehicle technology. A few variations in electric vehicle technology are as follows:
- Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
HEVs equip with an internal combustion engine along with an electric motor to power up the vehicle and batteries for generating electricity. They depend on gasoline or any alternative fuel for power supply. You cannot plug in to charge the device. Instead of which, the battery of the vehicle can charge by the engine and by the regenerative braking process.
- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
PHEVs supports gas-only as well as electric-only driving. The speed is much high even with the smaller batteries than the Battery Electric Vehicle. These vehicles can also charge by simple plugging in as well as regenerative braking.
- Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
BEVs has a little bit large battery than the others to power one or more electric motors. The great thing is that you can charge this vehicle by simple plugin using work, public, or home charging stations.
Another benefit is that it requires only a few maintenances. It means you will never need new spark plugs or oil changing!
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
FCEVs uses energy generating from a chemical reaction to power the vehicle’s electric motor. This reaction is carried out between the oxygen from the air and the stored hydrogen gas in an onboard tank. The refuelling is very short and takes only 3–5 minutes. The great thing is that most of the manufacturer supply free hydrogen fuel for the first few years of ownership.
How Does An Electric Car Work?
An electric car or vehicles (EVs) also known as battery electric car or vehicle. In the electric vehicle technology, the machine equips with an electric motor in place of an internal combustion engine. Additionally, it also packs with a large traction battery that function is to generate the power on the electric motor of the vehicle. For this purpose, it needs to either plug into the charging equipment known as EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment), or wall outlet.
As we know, in electric vehicle technology, the car runs on electricity. Thus, it does not emit any exhaust from its tailpipe as well as does not have any typical liquid fuel components, including a fuel line, fuel pump, or fuel tank. Instead of these components, there are so many other parts includes in the electric vehicle technology.
Core components of an electric vehicle technology
The electric car technology has several unique parts that an ordinary can does not have. The core components of the electric cars are as follows:
- Battery or electric auxiliary:
In the electric car tech, there is an auxiliary or electric battery that provides electricity to power up the car accessories. The battery is rechargeable so that you can use it as an automobile and laptop by simple charging.
- Charge port:
For charging purpose, there is a charging port that connects the car to an external power supply. It helps the users for charging the traction battery.
- DC/DC converter:
In all the electric vehicle technology, the devices generate higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack. However, the recharging the auxiliary battery and working of all the vehicle accessories need a lower-voltage DC power. For this purpose, all the electric cars contain DC/DC converter to convert the higher-voltage DC power to the lower-voltage DC power.
- Electric traction motor:
An electric traction motor drives the vehicle wheels using the power from the traction battery pack. In many electric vehicle technologies, the car uses the motor generators that run the vehicle as well as regenerates the electricity.
- Onboard charger:
Onboard charger picks the incoming AC electricity from the electric supply with the help of the charge port. After that, it converts the AC power to the DC power that ultimately charges the traction battery. The charger also helps to communicate with the monitor battery characteristics and the charging equipment, such as current, temperature, voltage, and state of charge during the pack charging.
- Power electronics controller:
A power electronics controller accomplishes the flow of electrical energy that delivers by the traction battery pack. It also helps to control the speed and the torque of the electric traction motor.
- Thermal system or cooling system:
A thermal system maintains a specific temperature range of the operating of the engine, power electronics, electric motor, and other components.
- Traction battery pack:
A Traction battery pack helps to stores the electricity or current that delivered to the electric traction motor.
- Transmission (electric):
The transmission helps to transmit the mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the vehicle wheels.
An electric vehicle technology: What is today and what will be tomorrow?
The electric car technology mostly has a shorter range of power that is per charge than the conventional vehicle’s technology. The standard vehicle has a high power range that is per tank of gas. However, the improve varieties of new models and the constant development of the high powered charging equipment reduce the gap of ranging in electric vehicles tech.
When we talk about the driving and efficiency range of electric cars, then it varies considerably based on the driving conditions. Extreme outside temperatures may reduce this range because more energy must need to either heat or cool the car cabin.
In case to driving tract, it is more effective under city driving than the highway driving. It is because, in city driving, there are more frequent stops, which exploit the advantages of regenerative braking. On the other hand, on the highway travelling, vehicles require fast speed with relatively more energy. Thus, it can overcome the increased drag at high speeds as compared to the gradual acceleration. A rapid acceleration of the vehicle also reduces the vehicle range. Despite all the above fact, a driving up or hauling heavy loads might significant inclines the potential to reduce the power range.